Genus and Species: Elephas maximus
Giant herbivores, Asian elephants can tear down huge tree limbs or pick up small objects with their muscular trunks.
elephants are huge gray animals inhabiting Asian tropical
forests. Their gray coloration conceals them in their shady
habitat. Elephants' trunks, unique among living mammals, are
versatile, enabling them to reach the ground, manipulate tiny
objects or tear down huge tree limbs, squirt water over their
backs or into their mouths, or blow dirt onto their backs
during dust baths. Female Asian elephants usually lack visible
tusks as do males in some populations, such as those in northeast
India. Wide, padded feet enable them to walk quietly. Large,
flappable ears help these huge animals cool off, although
elephants often must retreat to the shade or water during
the hottest part of the day.
Asian elephants grow
up to 21 feet long, stand up to 10 feet tall, and weigh up
to 11,000 pounds. Females reach around eight and a half feet
tall and weigh less than males. Despite their size, elephants are able to walk silently.
elephants live in large blocks of forest near water sources
and grasslands, habitat that has been greatly reduced in the last half century. They inhabit India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar (Burma),
Indonesia, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal,
Bangladesh, and southern China.
The Asian elephant
is listed as endangered on the World Conservation Union's
(IUCN's) Red List of Threatened Animals.
Asian elephants inhabit
a variety of tropical forest habitats from moist, evergreen
lowland forest to dry semi-deciduous teak forests to cooler
mountain forests up to 10,000 feet. They also frequent adjacent
grasslands and farm areas. Their varied diet enables them
to live in disturbed forests as long as they have plenty of
space to move around and exploit different foods without coming
into conflict with people.
trunk and large, rasping molars allow Asian elephants to gather
and process a wide variety of vegetation, including grasses
and herbs, leaves, fruit, farm crops, and bark.
National Zoo Diet:
at the Zoo, elephants eat 125 pounds of hay, ten pounds of
herbivore pellets, ten pounds of vegetables and fruits, and
a few leafy branches.
Reproduction: Older and larger
males—especially those in musth (condition of heightened
testosterone levels) dominate the breeding, winning the acceptance
of females in heat. Gestation takes 20 to 22 months, and usually
only one calf is born. Female Asian elephants can usually
breed by age 14 and usually give birth to one young every
In the wild, Asian
elephants may live up to about 60 years but most do not live that long.
Female and young
male Asian elephants live in cohesive herds of related adults
and their offspring. The matriarch, usually the oldest and
largest female, sets the pace of the group's activities. Herds
often join with others to form large groups called clans.
Males leave herds at puberty, around their 13th year, and
travel alone or in bachelor groups. Elephants wander widely
in search of food. Movements vary widely depending upon food
availability. Asian elephants communicate via rumbles, growls,
bellows, and moans. Some of these varied, low-frequency sounds
may travel a mile or more.
elephants once ranged from Iraq east through Asia south of
the Himalayas, into southern China and possibly south to Java.
However, centuries of hunting and habitat destruction caused
dramatic declines. Males are still killed for their tusks,
although this happens less often today thanks to a global
ivory ban, in place since 1989. Today, Asian elephants thrive
mostly in large remote reserves as well as in and among human habitation. Where elephants and people inhabit the same area,
conflicts often occur.
Elephants can cause great damage to crops, and they occasionally
kill people. Males in musth
are responsible for the majority of attacks. Elephants play
important roles in the cultures and religions of countries
in most of their range, which inspires support for habitat
protection measures, continued studies about elephants and
their conservation needs, and efforts to mitigate conflicts
between elephants and people.
- Asian elephants can tear down trees or pick up a blade of grass with their trunks.
- Elephants have the largest brain of any land mammal. In fact, of all land mammals, they have the greatest volume of cerebral cortex available for cognitive processing.
- An elephant’s trunk has more than 40,000 muscles, more than all the muscles in a human body!
- Asian elephants have a gestation period of almost 22 months—the longest of any animal. Calves often nurse for two to four years.
- Asian elephants communicate via rumbles, bellows, and moans. They also emit low-frequency infrasounds that can travel several miles.
- Along with dolphins and great apes, Asian elephants are the only animals known to recognize themselves in a mirror.