Red-footed tortoises have a concave, bumpy shell. Their skin is mostly black with shells being typically black, gray or brown. Young tortoises have small distinct areas of yellow or tan coloring surrounding or covering each bump. Bright red marks may appear on the head. The legs and tail often have patches of orange, yellow or red.
Male red-footed tortoises are larger than females and grow up to 13.5 inches (34 centimeters) long. Females average 11.25 inches (28.5 centimeters) long. Adult male tortoises can weigh up to 20 pounds (9 kilograms).
Red-footed tortoises live throughout South America from Panama to Argentina. They are also found on the Caribbean islands of Trinidad and Barbados. They live in dry and wet forests areas, grasslands and the savanna.
Males and females use head movements as signals to identify each other.
Red-footed tortoises are primarily herbivorous but will also eat small amounts of animal matter, such as small invertebrates. Most of their food comes from leaves, grasses, fungi, fruits and flowers.
At the Smithsonian's National Zoo, they are fed a specially formulated tortoise feed that includes a balance of cellulose, carbohydrates, proteins and minerals such as calcium. They also receive dietary enrichment in the form of browse and occasional fruit.
After mating, females bury five to 15 eggs in nests excavated in leaf litter on the forest floor. Incubation time in the nest varies with local conditions, but typically, eggs hatch after around 150 days.
They frequently reach ages of 50 years or more.